Water that is used for drinking water production contains water molecules and a large variety of other substances. Water easily dissolves other substances in it. Water that falls to earth during rain showers dissolves substances, particles, and gasses such as oxygen, which can be found in air. Contaminants that are present in the air also dissolve in rainwater. When surface water flows on earth it also dissolves several different substances, such as sand particles, organic matter, and minerals. Water that settles into the ground and becomes groundwater often contains large amounts of dissolved minerals, as a result of contact with soils and rocks. Human activities, such as agriculture and industrial waste and sewer water discharge cause a number of pollutants to enter the water.
For many years, humans have treated wastewater to protect human and ecological health from waterborne diseases. Despite the improvement in effluent quality, point source discharges continue to be a significant contributor to the degradation of surface water quality. In addition, much of the existing wastewater infrastructure, including collection systems, treatment plants, and equipment, has deteriorated and is in need of repair or replacement. Despite the many measures taken, water still needs treatment before it is suitable for use as drinking water. Thus bringing in the need for water treatment systems.
During water purification, wastewater is treated to become drinking water which meets legal standards in the physical, bacteriological and chemical area. The water may not contain an odor or flavor, and it should be bright and chemically stable. Water treatment contains two process steps: physical removal of solid particles, mainly minerals and organic matter and chemical disinfection; killing or deactivating microorganisms in water.
Water treatment processes:
Let’s look at some of the various water quality improvement systems available. It may vary as per the requirement of the people. No one piece of equipment is a cure-all for all water problems.
It helps in the removal of suspended particles thus improving its appearance.
Carbon is mostly known to adsorb chlorine and chlorine and chloramines. It is a recognized treatment technique used for removal of certain organic contaminants such as trihalomethanes, trichloroethylene, paradichlorobenzene, and others. However, it cannot remove total dissolved salts (TDS) from the water. Before implementation, one should discuss with the water quality improvement professional.
RO systems use a sediment filter, a semi-permeable membrane, and a carbon filter to produce low-mineral, low-sodium drinking water. It uses household pressure to separate water from dissolved minerals.
In distillation, heat is used to evaporate water leaving behind the impurities. The steam is condensed back into liquid and is cooled to become distilled water. Before installing it is always advisable to check whether the product meets USP (United States Pharmacopoeia) standards.
These are some of the water treatment systems offered by the various water treatment service providers. There are many others which will vary depending upon your requirement. If you are looking for an inexpensive method, then you can use detergents, chemicals or other compounds which helps in softening of the water. One of the most common methods used is ion exchange softening which is relatively inexpensive and provides the luxury of using more natural types of cleaning products for household chores and personal care.